In this tutorial, we’ll learn how to find perfect squares in a list using Python – a common task in algorithm studies and number theory.

In Python, this can be easily achieved by iterating through the list and using a built-in function to determine if a number is a perfect square. In just a few simple steps, we’ll develop a Python program to identify perfect squares.

### Step 1: Understand What a Perfect Square Is

A perfect square is a number that can be expressed as the product of an integer with itself. For instance, the number 4 is a perfect square because it can be obtained by multiplying 2 by 2.

### Step 2: Initialize Your List

First, you need to create or initialize your list in Python. A list in Python is a collection of items that can be of mixed types. They are mutable and can be indexed and sliced.

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numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] |

### Step 3: Create the Function to Find Perfect Squares

Next, create a function to determine if a number in the list is a perfect square. To do this, you would use the built-in Python math library function **isqrt()**. This function returns the integer square root of a number. Then compare the square of this root with the original number, if it’s identical, the number is a perfect square!

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import math def is_perfect_square(n): root = math.isqrt(n) return root*root == n |

### Step 4: Iterate Over the List

Once the function is defined, now iterate over the list using a for loop to check each number. If a number is a perfect square, append it to a new list.

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perfect_squares = [] for num in numbers: if is_perfect_square(num): perfect_squares.append(num) |

### Step 5: Print Out the Perfect Squares

The last step is to print out your list of perfect squares:

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print(perfect_squares) |

## The Full Code

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import math numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] def is_perfect_square(n): root = math.isqrt(n) return root*root == n perfect_squares = [] for num in numbers: if is_perfect_square(num): perfect_squares.append(num) print(perfect_squares) |

[1, 4, 9]

## Conclusion

In this tutorial, we learned how to identify perfect squares within a list using Python. We used the **isqrt()** function from the math library to calculate the square root of a number as an integer. We then compared the square of that integer to the original number to determine if it is a perfect square.

This quick, modern approach allows for easy and efficient processing of lists in Python.